SOCIAL SECURITY OF THE DAGESTAN POPULATION IN the 1930’S: PROBLEMS AND WAYS OF THEIR SOLUTION

Abstract


This paper is devoted to the development of the pension system in Dagestan in the 1930s.  This problem is an important part of the social policy of the State; because the stability of the society depends on a social population well-being. This research has great scientific significance, because before this other researchers have not studied it.

The actual study is mostly based on the new archive materials. In these documents have confirmation that the living standard of the population was low in under study period. The pensions were granted only to the factory and office workers of the State institutions and enterprises and not to the peasants. Also peasants were deficient of social privileges.

In archives were found reports that the highly significant progress has been achieved with respect to employment benefits for the blind and deaf in the 1930s. All public institutions and government owned companies in Dagestan were obliged by law to employ disabled people, as vell as provided access to training and retraining when possible. Disabled people were provided with light working professions. The advantage of the mothers of multiple children, order of establishing their state allowance is shown, is also studied. In research was identified the role of the Peasant's mutual aid Committee in the social welfare for disabled villagers.

The discovered documents enriches the general knowledge about the rules of social security of certain categories of the population of Dagestan are studied in this paper.


The article, basing on the new archival documents, highlights an unexplored in the Daghestan historical literature problem – the development of the pension system in Daghestan. The scientific problem, considered in the article, is one of the important components of the social policy of the state. The stability of society depends directly on the social well-being of the population. The method of comparative analysis, used in the research, shows the increase in the number of people on social welfare in Daghestan, especially blind and deaf ones. The principle of objectivity made it possible to determine the effectiveness of the work of social welfare authorities on the basis of an analysis of the most significant sources. Particular attention was paid to activities, related to the employment of disabled people, improvement of labour qualification through training and retraining. The People’s Commissariats and other departments pointed to employers on the benefits of disabled people when they were employed in positions of easy types of service work. Special attention was paid to the social security of mothers of large families. The article highlights the process of establishing state benefits. The role in this process of district and city executive committees, the DSSR SNK, is shown.
The article analyzes official documents on the basis of which the social security of certain categories of the population of Daghestan has improved; improvement of population’s pensions; the role of peasant mutual assistance committees in the social security of the disabled inhabitants of the village was identified.

Madina M. Amirkhanova

The Institute of History, Archeology and Ethnography of the Daghestan Scientific Centre of RAS

Author for correspondence.
Email: madinat63@mail.ru

Russian Federation, Makhachkala, Russia

PhD, Senior Researcher 

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